Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 27, 2020
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Principles of Consolidation and Fiscal Year
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation - The consolidated financial statements of the Company are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and include the accounts of Red Robin and its wholly owned subsidiaries after elimination of all intercompany accounts and transactions. The Company's fiscal year is 52 or 53 weeks ending the last Sunday of the calendar year. Year-end dates and the number of weeks in each fiscal year are shown in the table below for periods presented in this Form 10-K and for the upcoming fiscal year.
Fiscal Year Year End Date Number of Weeks in Fiscal Year
Current and Prior Fiscal Years:
2020 December 27, 2020 52
2019 December 29, 2019 52
2018 December 30, 2018 52
Upcoming Fiscal Year
2021 December 26, 2021 52
Use of Estimates Use of Estimates - The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. The areas that require management's most significant estimates are impairment of long-lived assets, lease accounting, estimating fair value, and unearned revenue. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Reclassifications Reclassifications - Certain amounts presented in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with the current period presentation. As of December 29, 2019, the Company reclassified $5.3 million from Prepaid expenses and other current assets to Income tax receivable on the consolidated balance sheets. For the year ended December 29, 2019, the Company reclassified the following within net cash provided by operating activities on the consolidated statements of cash flows: $15.1 million from Non-cash other charges to Goodwill and restaurant asset impairment, $5.2 million from Prepaid expenses and other current assets to Income tax receivable, $0.7 million from Other operating assets and liabilities, net to Lease assets, net of liabilities, and $0.2 million from Prepaid expenses and other current assets to Inventories. For the year ended December 30, 2018, the Company reclassified the following within net cash provided by operating activities on the consolidated statements of cash flows: $28.1 million from Non-cash other charges to Goodwill and restaurant asset impairment, $1.4 million from Prepaid expenses and other current assets to Income tax receivable, $0.8 million from Prepaid expenses and other current assets to Inventories, and $0.6 million from Other operating assets and liabilities, net to Lease assets, net of liabilities.
Revenue from Contract with Customer
Revenue Recognition - Revenues consist of sales from restaurant operations, franchise revenue, and other revenue including gift card breakage and miscellaneous revenue. The Company recognizes revenue when it satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control over a product or service to a restaurant Guest, franchisee, or other customer.
The Company recognizes revenues from restaurant sales when payment is tendered at the point of sale, as the Company's performance obligation to provide food and beverage to the customer has been satisfied.
The Company sells gift cards which do not have an expiration date, and it does not deduct dormancy fees from outstanding gift card balances. We recognize revenue from gift cards as either: (i) Restaurant revenue, when the Company's performance obligation to provide food and beverage to the customer is satisfied upon redemption of the gift card, or (ii) gift card breakage, as discussed below.
Red Robin Royalty™ deferred revenue primarily relates to a program in which registered members earn an award for a free entrée for every nine entrées purchased. We recognize the current sale of an entrée and defer a portion of the revenue to reflect partial pre-payment for the future entrée the member is entitled to receive. We estimate the future value of the award based on the historical average value of redemptions. We also estimate what portion of registered members are not likely to reach the ninth purchase based on historical activity and recognize the deferred revenue related to those purchases. We recognize the deferred revenue in restaurant revenue on earned rewards when the Company satisfies its performance obligation at redemption, or upon expiration. We compare the estimate of the value of future awards to historical redemptions to evaluate the reasonableness of the deferred amount.
Revenues we receive from our franchise arrangements include sales-based royalties, advertising fund contributions, area development fees, and franchise fees. Red Robin franchisees are required to remit 4.0% to 5.0% of their revenues as royalties to the Company and contribute up to 3.0% of revenues to two national advertising funds. The Company recognizes these sales-based royalties and advertising fund contributions as the underlying franchisee sales occur.
The Company also provides its franchisees with management expertise, training, pre-opening assistance, and restaurant operating assistance in exchange for area development fees and franchise fees. The Company capitalizes these fees upon collection from the franchisee, which then amortize over the contracted franchise term as the services comprising the performance obligation are satisfied. The Company typically grants franchise rights to franchisees for a term of 20 years, with the right to extend the term for an additional ten years if various conditions are satisfied by the franchisee.
Gift card breakage is recognized when the likelihood of a gift card being redeemed by the customer is remote and the Company determines there is not a legal obligation to remit the unredeemed gift card balance to the relevant jurisdiction. The determination of the gift card breakage rate is based upon the Company's specific historical redemption patterns. The Company recognizes gift card breakage by applying its estimate of the rate of gift card breakage on a pro rata basis over the period of estimated redemption.
Other revenue consists of miscellaneous revenues considered insignificant to the Company's business.
Cash Equivalents
Cash Equivalents - The Company considers all highly liquid instruments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Amounts receivable from credit card issuers are typically converted to cash within two days to four days of the original sales transaction and are considered to be cash equivalents.
Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with multiple financial institutions. Generally, these deposits may be redeemed upon demand and are maintained with financial institutions with reputable credit and therefore bear minimal credit risk. The Company holds cash and cash equivalents at financial institutions in excess of amounts covered by the Federal Depository Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC") and sometimes invests excess cash in money market funds not insured by the FDIC.
Accounts Receivable Accounts Receivable - Accounts receivable consists primarily of third party gift card receivables, third party delivery partner receivables, trade receivables due from franchisees for royalties, and tenant improvement allowances.
Inventory Inventories - Inventories consist of food, beverages, and supplies valued at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value.
Property and Equipment
Property and Equipment - Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Expenditures for major additions and improvements are capitalized and minor replacements, maintenance, and repairs are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is computed on the straight-line method based on the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the terms of the underlying leases of the related assets. Interest incurred on funds used to construct Company-owned restaurants is capitalized and amortized over the estimated useful life of the related assets.
The estimated useful lives for property and equipment are:
5 years to 20 years
Leasehold improvements
Shorter of lease term or estimated useful life, not to exceed 20 years
Furniture, fixtures and equipment
5 years to 20 years
Computer equipment
2 years to 5 years
The Company capitalizes certain overhead related to the development and construction of its new restaurants as well as certain information technology infrastructure upgrades. Costs incurred for the potential development of restaurants that are subsequently terminated are expensed.
Lessee, Leases
Leases - The Company leases land, buildings, and equipment used in its operations under operating and finance leases. Our leases generally have remaining terms of 1-15 years, most of which include options to extend the leases for additional 5-year periods. Generally, the lease term is the minimum of the non-cancelable period of the lease or the lease term inclusive of reasonably certain renewal periods up to a term of 20 years.
We determine if a contract contains a lease at inception. Operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date. Operating lease liabilities represent the present value of lease payments not yet paid. Operating lease assets represent our right to use an underlying asset and are based upon the operating lease liabilities adjusted for prepayments or accrued lease payments, initial direct costs, lease incentives, and impairment of operating lease assets. To determine the present value of lease payments not yet paid, we estimate incremental secured borrowing rates corresponding to the maturities of the leases. We estimate this rate based on prevailing financial market conditions, comparable company and credit analysis, and management judgment.
Our leases typically contain rent escalations over the lease term. We recognize expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Additionally, tenant incentives used to fund leasehold improvements are recognized when earned and reduce our right-of-use asset related to the lease. These are amortized through the right-of-use asset as reductions of expense over the lease term.
Some of our leases include rent escalations based on inflation indexes and fair market value adjustments. Certain leases contain contingent rental provisions that include a fixed base rent plus an additional percentage of the restaurant's sales in excess of stipulated amounts. Operating lease liabilities are calculated using the prevailing index or rate at lease commencement. Subsequent escalations in the index or rate and contingent rental payments are recognized as variable lease expenses. Our lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants.
We have elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all applicable classes of underlying assets. Short-term disclosures include only those leases with a term greater than one month and 12 months or less, and expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less, that do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that we are reasonably certain to exercise, are not recorded on the balance sheet.
We elected the practical expedient that does not require us to separate lease and non-lease components for our population of real estate assets.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets net
Goodwill and Intangible Assets, net - Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired. Intangible assets comprise primarily leasehold interests, acquired franchise rights, and the costs of purchased liquor licenses. Leasehold interests primarily represent the fair values of acquired lease contracts having contractual rents lower than fair market rents and are amortized on a straight-line basis over the remaining initial lease term. Acquired franchise rights, which represent the acquired value of franchise contracts, are amortized over the term of the franchise agreements. The costs of obtaining non-transferable liquor licenses from local government agencies are capitalized and generally amortized over a period of up to 20 years. The costs of purchasing transferable liquor licenses through open markets in jurisdictions with a limited number of authorized liquor licenses are capitalized as indefinite-lived intangible assets.
Goodwill, which is not subject to amortization, is evaluated for impairment annually as of the end of the Company's third fiscal quarter, or more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change, such as material deterioration in performance or a significant number of restaurant closures, that would indicate an impairment may exist. Goodwill is evaluated at the level of the Company's single operating segment, which also represents the Company's only reporting unit.
When evaluating goodwill for impairment, the Company may first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit is impaired. If we do not perform a qualitative assessment, or if we determine that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, we perform a quantitative assessment and calculate the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds the estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded to reduce the carrying value to the estimated fair value. Our decision to perform a qualitative impairment assessment in a given year is influenced by a number of factors, including the significance of the excess of the reporting unit's estimated fair value over carrying value at the last quantitative assessment date, the amount of time in between quantitative fair value assessments, and the price of our common stock.
The Company determined the sustained decrease in our stock price coupled with the closure of dining rooms and significant decline to the equity value of our peers and overall U.S. stock market represented a goodwill impairment triggering event due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We performed a quantitative analysis as of our first quarter ended April 19, 2020 to determine if impairment to our goodwill existed for our one reporting unit. We used a blended approach in calculating fair value of our one reporting unit including the income approach, market approach, and market capitalization approach. This analysis resulted in full impairment of our goodwill balance totaling $95.4 million included in Other charges on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The goodwill impairment was measured as the amount by which the carrying value of the reporting unit, including goodwill, exceeded its fair value.
The Company performed a qualitative assessment for the 2019 annual impairment evaluation at the end of the third fiscal quarter and determined goodwill was not impaired. No indicators of impairment were identified from the date of our impairment test through the end of 2019. By review of macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, cost factors, overall financial performance compared with prior projections and prior actual financial results, other relevant entity-specific events, and changes in share price, we determined it was not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit was less than its carrying amount.
Liquor licenses with indefinite lives are reviewed for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount may not be recoverable. If the carrying amount is not recoverable, we record an impairment charge for the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value. We determine fair value based on prices in the open market for license in same or similar jurisdictions. No impairment charges were recorded in 2020, 2019, or 2018.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets Impairment of Long-Lived Assets - The Company reviews its long-lived assets, including restaurant sites, leasehold improvements, information technology systems, and other fixed assets, and amortizable intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of the assets to the future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. Identifiable cash flows are measured at the lowest level for which they are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets and liabilities, generally at the restaurant level. If the assets are determined to be impaired, the amount of impairment recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds their fair value. Fair value is generally determined using forecasted cash flows discounted using an estimated weighted average cost of capital. Management may also utilize other market information to determine fair value when relevant information is available. Restaurant sites and other assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of their carrying amount or fair value, less estimated costs to sell. Information technology systems, such as internal-use computer software, are reviewed and tested for recoverability if the internal-use computer software is not expected to provide substantive service potential, a significant change occurs in the extent or manner in which the software is used or is expected to be used, a significant change is made or will be made to the software program, or costs of developing or modifying internal-use software significantly exceed the amount originally expected to develop or modify the software.
Other Assets, Net Other Assets, net - Other assets, net consist primarily of assets related to various deposits, the employee deferred compensation plan, and unamortized debt issuance costs on the credit facility. Debt issuance costs are capitalized and amortized to interest expense on a straight-line basis which approximates the effective interest rate method over the term of the Company's long-term debt.
Advertising - Under the Company's franchise agreements, both the Company and the franchisees must contribute up to 3.0% of revenues to two national media advertising funds (the "Advertising Funds"). These Advertising Funds are used to build the Company's brand equity and awareness primarily through a national marketing strategy, including national television advertising, digital media, social media programs, email, loyalty, and public relations initiatives. Contributions to these Advertising Funds from franchisees are recorded as revenue under Franchise revenue in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
Total advertising costs were $24.9 million, $44.3 million, and $44.3 million in 2020, 2019, and 2018 and were included in Selling, general, and administrative expenses.
Advertising production costs are expensed in the period when the advertising first takes place. Other advertising costs are expensed as incurred.
Self-Insurance Programs Self-Insurance Programs - The Company utilizes a self-insurance plan for health, general liability, and workers' compensation coverage. Predetermined loss limits have been arranged with insurance companies to limit the Company's per occurrence cash outlay. Accrued liabilities and other current liabilities and accrued payroll and payroll-related liabilities include the estimated cost to settle reported claims and incurred but unreported claims.
Legal Contingencies Legal Contingencies - In the normal course of business, we are subject to various legal proceedings and claims, the outcomes of which are uncertain. We record an accrual for legal contingencies when we determine it is probable that we have incurred a liability and we can reasonably estimate the amount of the loss. In making such determinations we evaluate, among other things, the probability of an unfavorable outcome, and when we believe it probable that a liability has been incurred, our ability to make a reasonable estimate of the loss.
Pre-opening Costs Pre-opening Costs - Pre-opening costs are expensed as incurred. Pre-opening costs include rental expenses through the date of opening for each restaurant, travel expenses, wages, and benefits for the training and opening teams, as well as food, beverage, and other restaurant opening costs incurred prior to a restaurant opening for business. Costs related to preparing restaurants to introduce Donatos® will be expensed as incurred and included in pre-opening costs.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes - Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for the estimated effects of all taxable temporary differences, and deferred tax assets are recognized for the estimated effects of all deductible temporary differences, net operating losses, and tax credit carryforwards. Realization of net deferred tax assets is dependent upon profitable operations and future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences. However, the amount of the deferred tax assets considered realizable could be adjusted if estimates of future taxable income during the carry forward period are increased or reduced or if there are differences in the timing or amount of future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences.
Pursuant to the guidance for uncertain tax positions, a taxpayer must be able to more likely than not sustain a position to recognize a tax benefit, and the measurement of the benefit is calculated as the largest amount that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon resolution of the benefit. The Company has analyzed filing positions in all of the federal, state, and foreign jurisdictions where it is required to file income tax returns, as well as all open tax years in these jurisdictions. The only periods subject to examination for the Company's federal and state returns are the 2015 through 2019 tax years.
The Company records interest and penalties associated with audits as a component of income before taxes. Penalties are recorded in Selling, general, and administrative expenses, interest received is recorded in Interest income and other, net, and interest paid is recorded in Interest expense on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company recorded immaterial interest expense on the identified tax liabilities in 2020, 2019, and 2018. Approximately $1.1 million of interest income was recorded related to the $49.4 million federal cash tax refund received during the fourth quarter of 2020.
Earnings Per Share Loss Per Share - Basic loss per share amounts are calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted loss per share amounts are calculated based upon the weighted average number of common and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the year. Potentially dilutive shares are excluded from the computation in periods in which they have an anti-dilutive effect. Diluted loss per share reflect the potential dilution that could occur if holders of options and awards exercised their holdings into common stock.The Company uses the treasury stock method to calculate the impact of outstanding stock options and awards.
Comprehensive Income Comprehensive Loss - Total comprehensive loss consists of the net loss and other gains and losses affecting stockholders' equity that, under U.S. GAAP, are excluded from net income. Other comprehensive (loss) income as presented in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for 2020, 2019, and 2018 consisted of the foreign currency translation adjustment resulting from the Company's Canadian restaurant operations.
Stock-Based Compensation/Deferred Compensation (Income) Expense
Stock-Based Compensation - The Company maintains several equity incentive plans under which it may grant stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, stock variable compensation, or other forms of awards granted or denominated in the Company's common stock or units of the Company's common stock, as well as cash variable compensation awards to employees, non-employees, directors, and consultants. The Company also maintains an employee stock purchase plan. The Company issues shares relating to stock-based compensation plans and the employee stock purchase plan from treasury shares.
Deferred Compensation (Income) Expense - The Company has assets and liabilities related to a deferred compensation plan. The assets of the deferred compensation plan are held in a rabbi trust, where they are invested in certain mutual funds that cover an investment spectrum range from equities to money market instruments. Increases in the market value of the investments held in the trust result in the recognition of deferred compensation expense reported in Selling, general, and administrative expenses and recognition of investment gain reported in Interest income and other, net, in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Decreases in the market value of the investments held in the trust result in the recognition of a reduction to deferred compensation expense and recognition of investment loss reported in Interest income and other, net, in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Foreign Currency Transactions Foreign Currency Translation - The Canadian Dollar is the functional currency for our Canadian restaurant operations. Assets and liabilities denominated in Canadian Dollars are translated into U.S. Dollars at exchange rates in effect as of the balance sheet date. Income and expense accounts are translated using the average exchange rates prevailing throughout the period. The resulting translation adjustment is recorded as a separate component of Other comprehensive (loss) income. Gain or loss from foreign currency transactions is recognized in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.