Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 30, 2018
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]
|Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Red Robin Gourmet Burgers, Inc., a Delaware corporation, together with its subsidiaries (“Red Robin,” “we,” “us,” “our”, or the “Company”), primarily develops, operates, and franchises casual-dining restaurants in North America. As of December 30, 2018, the Company owned and operated 484 restaurants located in 39 states and two Canadian provinces. The Company also had 89 casual-dining restaurants operated by franchisees in 16 states. The Company operates its business as one operating and one reportable segment.
Principles of Consolidation and Fiscal Year—The consolidated financial statements of the Company include the accounts of Red Robin and its wholly owned subsidiaries after elimination of all intercompany accounts and transactions. The Company’s fiscal year is 52 or 53 weeks ending the last Sunday of the calendar year. Fiscal year 2018 included 52 weeks, ending on December 30, 2018. Fiscal year 2017 included 53 weeks, ending on December 31, 2017. Fiscal years 2016, 2015, and 2014 each included 52 weeks, ending on December 25, 2016, December 27, 2015, and December 28, 2014. Fiscal year 2019 will include 52 weeks and will end on December 29, 2019. We refer to our fiscal years as 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, and 2014 throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Use of Estimates—The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. The areas that require management’s most significant estimates are impairment of long lived assets, goodwill, lease accounting, insurance/self-insurance reserves, estimating fair value, income taxes, unearned revenue, and stock-based compensation expense. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Reclassifications—Certain amounts presented in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with the current period presentation. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2017 and December 25, 2016, the Company reclassified franchise advertising fund contributions from Selling, general, and administrative expenses to Franchise revenue. Refer to Note 2, Revenue for a further discussion of reclassifications recorded in connection with Topic 606.
Cash Equivalents—The Company considers all highly liquid instruments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Amounts receivable from credit card issuers are typically converted to cash within two to four days of the original sales transaction and are considered to be cash equivalents.
Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with multiple financial institutions. Generally, these deposits may be redeemed upon demand and are maintained with financial institutions with reputable credit and therefore bear minimal credit risk. The Company holds cash and cash equivalents at financial institutions in excess of amounts covered by the Federal Depository Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and sometimes invests excess cash in money market funds not insured by the FDIC.
Accounts Receivable—Accounts receivable consists primarily of third-party gift card receivables, tenant improvement allowances, and trade receivables due from franchisees for royalties. At the end of 2018, there was approximately $13.8 million of gift cards in transit in accounts receivable related to gift cards that were sold by third-party retailers compared to $14.3 million at the end of 2017. At the end of 2018, there was also approximately $2.4 million related to tenant improvement allowances in accounts receivable compared to $2.2 million at the end of 2017.
Inventories—Inventories consist of food, beverages, and supplies valued at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. At the end of 2018 and 2017, food and beverage inventories were $8.7 million and $9.0 million and supplies inventories were $18.6 million and $20.6 million.
Property and Equipment—Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Expenditures for major additions and improvements are capitalized and minor replacements, maintenance, and repairs are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is computed on the straight-line method, based on the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the terms of the underlying leases of the related assets. Interest incurred on funds used to construct Company-owned restaurants is capitalized and amortized over the estimated useful life of the related assets. Capitalized interest totaled $0.2 million, $0.3 million, and $0.2 million in 2018, 2017, and 2016.
The estimated useful lives for property and equipment are:
The Company capitalizes certain overhead related to the development and construction of its new restaurants as well as certain information technology infrastructure upgrades. Costs incurred for the potential development of restaurants that are subsequently terminated are expensed.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets, net—Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired. Intangible assets comprise primarily leasehold interests, acquired franchise rights, and the costs of purchased liquor licenses. Leasehold interests primarily represent the fair values of acquired lease contracts having contractual rents lower than fair market rents and are amortized on a straight-line basis over the remaining initial lease term. Acquired franchise rights, which represent the acquired value of franchise contracts, are amortized over the term of the franchise agreements. The costs of obtaining non-transferable liquor licenses from local government agencies are capitalized and generally amortized over a period of up to 20 years. The costs of purchasing transferable liquor licenses through open markets in jurisdictions with a limited number of authorized liquor licenses are capitalized as indefinite-lived intangible assets.
Goodwill, which is not subject to amortization, is evaluated for impairment annually as of the end of the Company’s third fiscal quarter, or more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change, such as material deterioration in performance or a significant number of store closures, that would indicate an impairment may exist. Goodwill is evaluated at the level of the Company’s single operating segment, which also represents the Company’s only reporting unit.
When evaluating goodwill for impairment, the Company may first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit is impaired. If we do not perform a qualitative assessment, or if we determine that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, we perform a quantitative assessment and calculate the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds the estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded to reduce the carrying value to the estimated fair value. Our decision to perform a qualitative impairment assessment in a given year is influenced by a number of factors, including the significance of the excess of the reporting unit’s estimated fair value over carrying value at the last quantitative assessment date, the amount of time in between quantitative fair value assessments, and the price of our common stock.
The Company performed a quantitative assessment and determined that goodwill was not impaired as of October 7, 2018. No indicators of impairment were identified from the date of our impairment test through the end of 2018. Step one of the impairment test is based upon a comparison of the carrying value of net assets, including goodwill balances, to the fair value of net assets. Fair value is measured using a combination of the market capitalization method, the income approach, and the market approach. The market capitalization method uses the Company’s stock price to derive fair value. The income approach consists of utilizing the discounted cash flow method that incorporates the Company’s estimates of future revenues and costs, discounted using a risk-adjusted discount rate. The Company’s estimates used in the income approach are consistent with the plans and estimates used to manage operations. The market approach utilizes multiples of profit measures in order to estimate the fair value of the assets. The Company evaluates all methods to ensure reasonably consistent results. Additionally, the Company evaluates the key input factors in the models used to determine whether a moderate change in any input factor or combination of factors would significantly change the results of the tests.
The Company performed a qualitative assessment for the 2017 annual impairment evaluation at the end of the third fiscal quarter and determined goodwill was not impaired. No indicators of impairment were identified from the date of our impairment test through the end of 2017. By review of macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, cost factors, overall financial performance compared with prior projections, and other relevant entity-specific events, we determined it was not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit was less than its carrying amount.
Liquor licenses with indefinite lives are reviewed for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount may not be recoverable. If the carrying amount is not recoverable, we record an impairment charge for the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value. We determine fair value based on prices in the open market for license in same or similar jurisdictions. No impairment charges were recorded in 2018, 2017, or 2016.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets—The Company reviews its long-lived assets, including restaurant sites, leasehold improvements, information technology systems and other fixed assets, and amortizable intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of the assets to the future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. Identifiable cash flows are measured at the lowest level for which they are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets and liabilities, generally at the restaurant level. If the assets are determined to be impaired, the amount of impairment recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds their fair value. Fair value is generally determined using forecasted cash flows discounted using an estimated weighted average cost of capital. Management may also utilize other market information to determine fair value when relevant information is available. Restaurant sites and other assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of their carrying amount or fair value, less estimated costs to sell. Information technology systems, such as internal-use computer software, are reviewed and tested for recoverability if the internal-use computer software is not expected to provide substantive service potential, a significant change occurs in the extent or manner in which the software is used or is expected to be used, a significant change is made or will be made to the software program, or costs of developing or modifying internal-use software significantly exceed the amount originally expected to develop or modify the software.
During 2018, 2017, and 2016, the Company recorded impairments of certain long-lived assets. See Note 4, Other Charges.
Other Assets, net—Other assets, net consist primarily of assets related to various deposits, the employee deferred compensation plan and unamortized debt issuance costs on revolving credit facilities. Debt issuance costs are capitalized and amortized to interest expense on a straight-line basis which approximates the effective interest rate method over the term of the Company’s long term debt. Refer to Note 8, Borrowings.
Advertising—Under the Company’s franchise agreements, both the Company and the franchisees must contribute a up to 3.0% of revenues to two national media advertising funds (the “Advertising Funds”). These Advertising Funds are used to build the Company’s brand equity and awareness primarily through a national marketing strategy, including national television advertising, digital media, social media programs, email, loyalty, and public relations initiatives. Contributions to these Advertising Funds are recorded as advertising costs under Selling, general, and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
Total advertising costs were $44.3 million, $48.0 million, and $37.6 million in 2018, 2017, and 2016, and were included in Selling, general, and administrative expenses.
Advertising production costs are expensed in the period when the advertising first takes place. Other advertising costs are expensed as incurred.
Rent—The Company’s leases generally contain escalating rent payments over the lease term as well as optional renewal periods. The Company accounts for its leases by recognizing rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term, which includes reasonably assured renewal periods. The lease term begins when the Company has the right to control the use of the property, which is typically before rent payments are due under the lease agreement. The difference between the rent expense and rent paid is recorded as Deferred rent in the consolidated balance sheets. Rent expense for the period prior to the restaurant opening is expensed in pre-opening costs. Tenant incentives used to fund leasehold improvements are recorded in deferred rent and amortized as reductions of lease rent expense ratably over the lease term.
Additionally, certain of the Company’s operating lease agreements contain clauses that provide for additional contingent rent based on a percentage of sales greater than certain specified target amounts. The Company recognizes contingent rent expense prior to the achievement of the specified target that triggers contingent rent, provided the achievement of that target is considered probable. Refer to Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies.
Self-Insurance Programs—The Company utilizes a self-insurance plan for health, general liability, and workers’ compensation coverage. Predetermined loss limits have been arranged with insurance companies to limit the Company’s per occurrence cash outlay. Accrued liabilities and accrued payroll and payroll-related liabilities include the estimated cost to settle reported claims and incurred but unreported claims.
Legal Contingencies—In the normal course of business, we are subject to various legal proceedings and claims, the outcomes of which are uncertain. We record an accrual for legal contingencies when we determine it is probable that we have incurred a liability and we can reasonably estimate the amount of the loss. In making such determinations we evaluate, among other things, the probability of an unfavorable outcome and, when we believe it probable that a liability has been incurred, our ability to make a reasonable estimate of the loss. See Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies, for additional details.
Pre-opening Costs—Pre-opening costs are expensed as incurred. Pre-opening costs include rental expenses through the date of opening for each restaurant, travel expenses, wages and benefits for the training and opening teams, as well as food, beverage, and other restaurant opening costs incurred prior to a restaurant opening for business.
Income Taxes—Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for the estimated effects of all taxable temporary differences, and deferred tax assets are recognized for the estimated effects of all deductible temporary differences and net operating losses, if any, and tax credit carryforwards.
Earnings Per Share—Basic earnings per share amounts are calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share amounts are calculated based upon the weighted average number of common and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the year. Potentially dilutive shares are excluded from the computation in periods in which they have an anti-dilutive effect. Diluted earnings per share reflect the potential dilution that could occur if holders of options exercised their holdings into common stock.
The Company uses the treasury stock method to calculate the impact of outstanding stock options. Basic weighted average shares outstanding is reconciled to diluted weighted average shares outstanding for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2018, December 31, 2017, and December 25, 2016 as follows (in thousands):
Comprehensive Income—Comprehensive income or loss consists of the net income or loss and other gains and losses affecting stockholders’ equity that, under U.S. GAAP, are excluded from net income. Other comprehensive loss as presented in the Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for 2018, 2017, and 2016 consisted of the foreign currency translation adjustment.
Stock-Based Compensation—The Company maintains several equity incentive plans under which it may grant stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, stock variable compensation or other forms of awards granted or denominated in the Company’s common stock or units of the Company’s common stock, as well as cash variable compensation awards to employees, non-employees, directors, and consultants. The Company also maintains an employee stock purchase plan. See Note 15, Stock Incentive Plans, for additional details.
Deferred Compensation (Income) Expense—The Company has assets and liabilities related to a deferred compensation plan. The assets of the deferred compensation plan are held in a rabbi trust, where they are invested in certain mutual funds that cover an investment spectrum range from equities to money market instruments. Increases in the market value of the investments held in the trust result in the recognition of deferred compensation expense reported in Selling, general, and administrative expenses and recognition of investment gain reported in Interest income and other, net, in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). Decreases in the market value of the investments held in the trust result in the recognition of a reduction to deferred compensation expense and recognition of investment loss reported in Interest income and other, net, in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). See Note 16, Employee Benefit Programs, for additional details.
Foreign Currency Translation—The Canadian Dollar is the functional currency for our Canadian restaurant operations. Assets and liabilities denominated in Canadian Dollars are translated into U.S. Dollars at exchange rates in effect as of the balance sheet date. Income and expense accounts are translated using the average exchange rates prevailing throughout the period. The resulting translation adjustment is recorded as a separate component of Other comprehensive income (loss). Gain or loss from foreign currency transactions is recognized in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).