Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 30, 2012
|Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Red Robin Gourmet Burgers, Inc., together with its subsidiaries ("Red Robin" or the "Company"), a Delaware corporation, develops and operates casual-dining restaurants. At December 30, 2012, the Company owned and operated 339 restaurants located in 33 states. The Company also sells franchises, of which there were 133 restaurants, in 21 states and two Canadian provinces as of December 30, 2012. The Company operates its business as one operating and one reportable segment.
Principles of Consolidation and Fiscal Year—The consolidated financial statements of the Company include the accounts of Red Robin and its wholly owned subsidiaries after elimination of all intercompany accounts and transactions. The Company's fiscal year is 52 or 53 weeks ending the last Sunday of the calendar year. Fiscal year 2012 included 53 weeks ending December 30, 2012, and fiscal years 2011 and 2010 included 52 weeks. Fiscal year 2013 will include 52 weeks and will end on December 29, 2013.
Use of Estimates—The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. The areas that require management's most significant estimates are impairment of long lived assets, goodwill, lease accounting, insurance/self-insurance reserves, estimating fair value, income taxes, unearned revenue and stock-based compensation expense. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash Equivalents—The Company considers all highly liquid instruments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Amounts receivable from credit card issuers are typically converted to cash within two to four days of the original sales transaction and are considered to be cash equivalents.
Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with multiple financial institutions. Generally, these deposits may be redeemed upon demand and are maintained with financial institutions with reputable credit and therefore bear minimal credit risk. The Company holds cash and cash equivalents at financial institutions in excess of amounts covered by the Federal Depository Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC") and sometimes invests excess cash in money market funds not insured by the FDIC.
Accounts Receivable—Accounts receivable consists primarily of trade receivables due from franchisees for royalties, as well as third-party gift card receivables. In 2012, there was approximately $8.8 million of gift cards in transit in accounts receivable related to gift cards that were sold by third-party retailers, but for which cash settlement occurs anywhere from 15 to 45 days from sale, compared to $7.5 million in 2011. In 2012, there was approximately $2.9 million related to tenant improvement allowances in accounts receivable compared to $2.7 million in 2011.
Inventories—Inventories consist of food, beverages, and supplies valued at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or market. At the end of fiscal 2012 and 2011, food and beverage inventories were $6.1 million and $6.6 million, respectively, and supplies inventories were $12.2 million and $11.4 million, respectively.
Property and Equipment—Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Expenditures for major additions and improvements are capitalized and minor replacements, maintenance, and repairs are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is computed on the straight-line method, based on the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the terms of the underlying leases of the related assets. Interest incurred on funds used to construct Company-owned restaurants is capitalized and amortized over the estimated useful life of the related assets. Capitalized interest totaled $0.3 million in 2012, $0.2 million in 2011, and $0.1 million in 2010.
The estimated useful lives for property and equipment are:
The Company capitalizes certain overhead related to the development and construction of its new restaurants, as well as certain information technology infrastructure upgrades. Capitalized overhead for the years ended December 30, 2012, December 25, 2011, and December 26, 2010, was $2.7 million, $2.4 million, and $2.4 million, respectively. Costs incurred for the potential development of restaurants that are subsequently terminated are expensed. No material expense has been incurred in any of the fiscal years presented.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets, net—Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired. Intangible assets are comprised primarily of leasehold interests, acquired franchise rights and the costs of purchased liquor licenses. Leasehold interests primarily represent the fair values of acquired lease contracts having contractual rents lower than fair market rents and are amortized on a straight-line basis over the remaining initial lease term. Acquired franchise rights, which represented the acquired value of franchise contracts, are amortized over the term of the franchise agreements. Liquor licenses are generally amortized over one to five years.
Goodwill, which is not subject to amortization, is evaluated for impairment annually or more frequently at the level of the Company's single operating segment, which also represents the Company's only reporting unit, if indicators of impairment are present. The Company performed step one of the impairment test on the last day of the fiscal year, December 30, 2012. Step one of the impairment test is based upon a comparison of the carrying value of net assets, including goodwill balances, to the fair value of net assets. Fair value is measured using a combination of the market capitalization method, the income approach, and the market approach. The market capitalization method uses the Company's stock price to derive fair value. The income approach consists of utilizing the discounted cash flow method that incorporates the Company's estimates of future revenues and costs, discounted using a risk-adjusted discount rate. The Company's estimates used in the income approach are consistent with the plans and estimates used to manage operations. The market approach utilizes multiples of profit measures in order to estimate the fair value of the assets. The Company evaluates all methods to ensure reasonably consistent results. Additionally, the Company evaluates the key input factors in the models used to determine whether a moderate change in any input factor or combination of factors would significantly change the results of the tests. Based on the completion of the step one test, it was determined that goodwill was not impaired as of December 30, 2012, as the percentage by which the fair value exceeded the carrying value was approximately 50%.
However, an impairment charge may be triggered in the future, if the value of the Company's stock declines, sales in the Company's restaurants decline beyond current forecast, or if there are significant adverse changes in the operating environment of the restaurant industry. The Company has followed a consistent approach to evaluating whether there are impairments of goodwill. The Company makes adjustments to assumptions to reflect management's view of current market and economic conditions. There was no impairment recorded during fiscal years 2012, 2011, and 2010.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets—The Company reviews its long-lived assets, including land, property and equipment, and amortizable intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of the assets to the future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. Identifiable cash flows are measured at the lowest level for which they are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets and liabilities, generally at the restaurant level. If the assets are determined to be impaired, the amount of impairment recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds their fair value. Fair value is generally determined using forecasted cash flows discounted using an estimated weighted average cost of capital. Restaurant sites and other assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of their carrying amount or fair value, less estimated costs to sell. There was no impairment recorded during 2012. During 2011 and 2010, the Company recorded impairments of certain long-lived assets. See Note 3, Restaurant Impairment and Restaurant Closures.
Fair Value Measurements—The Company measures certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value in accordance with the accounting guidance for measuring fair value. These assets and liabilities are measured at each reporting period, and certain of these are revalued as required. Refer to Note 9, Fair Value Measurements.
Other Assets, net—Other assets, net consist primarily of assets related to the employee deferred compensation plan, unamortized debt issuance costs and various deposits. Debt issuance costs are capitalized and amortized to interest expense on a straight-line basis which approximates the effective interest rate method over the term of the Company's long term debt. Due to the Company's refinancing of debt in December 2012, the Company wrote off $1.7 million of certain unamortized loan origination costs associated with the previous credit facility. Refer to Note 7 Borrowings. Debt issuance costs at the end of fiscal years 2012 and 2011 were $1.8 million and $3.2 million, respectively.
Revenue Recognition—Revenues consist of sales from restaurant operations, gift card breakage, franchise royalties and fees, and rental income. Revenues from restaurant sales are recognized when payment is tendered at the point of sale.
The Company sells gift cards which do not have an expiration date, and it does not deduct dormancy fees from outstanding gift card balances. The Company recognizes revenue from gift cards when: (i) the gift card is redeemed by the customer; or (ii) the likelihood of the gift card being redeemed by the customer is remote (gift card breakage), and the Company determines that there is not a legal obligation to remit the unredeemed gift card balance to the relevant jurisdiction. The determination of the gift card breakage rate is based upon the Company's specific historical redemption patterns. The Company recognizes gift card breakage by applying its estimate of the rate of gift card breakage over the period of estimated performance (currently 24 months). The Company completed initial analysis of unredeemed gift card liabilities for gift cards sold in third party locations during the first quarter of 2011 and recognized $0.4 million into revenue as an initial adjustment. The Company completed its initial analysis of unredeemed gift card liabilities for gift cards that it sold in its restaurants during the first quarter 2010, and recognized $3.5 million into revenue as an initial adjustment. For the fiscal years ended 2012, 2011 and 2010, the Company recognized $1.5 million, $1.7 million and $4.3 million (inclusive of the initial adjustments), respectively, into revenue related to unredeemed gift card breakage. Gift card breakage is included in other revenue in the consolidated statements of operations. Unearned gift card revenue at the end of fiscal years 2012 and 2011 was $23.6 million and $20.3 million, respectively.
The Company typically grants franchise rights to franchisees for a term of 20 years, with the right to extend the term for an additional ten years if they satisfy various conditions. The Company provides management expertise, training, pre-opening assistance and restaurant operating assistance in exchange for area development fees, franchise fees, license fees and royalties of 3% to 4% of the franchised adjusted gross restaurant sales. The Company recognizes area development fees and franchise fees as income when the Company has performed all material obligations and initial services, which generally occurs upon the opening of the new restaurant. Until earned, these fees are accounted for as an accrued liability. Area development fees are recognized proportionately with the opening of each new restaurant. Royalties are accrued as earned and are calculated each period based on the franchisee's reported adjusted sales.
The Company accounts for its Red Robin Royalty™ loyalty program using a deferred revenue approach in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("U.S. GAAP") related to loyalty programs. Red Robin Royalty™ deferred revenue primarily relates to a program in which registered members earn an award for a free entrée for every nine entrées purchased. We recognize the current sale of an entrée and defer a portion of the revenue to reflect partial pre-payment for the future entrée the member is entitled to receive. We estimate the future value of the award based on the historical average value of redemptions. We also estimate what portion of registered members are not likely to reach the ninth purchase based on historical activity and recognize the deferred revenue related to those purchases. We recognize the deferred revenue in Restaurant Revenue on earned rewards when redeemed or upon expiration, which is 60 days after the award is earned. We compare the estimate of the value of future awards to historical redemptions to evaluate the reasonableness of the deferred amount. Deferred loyalty revenue at December 30 2012 and December 25, 2011, was $4.6 million and $3.8 million, respectively.
Advertising—Advertising production costs are expensed in the period when the advertising first takes place. Other advertising and marketing costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising and marketing costs were $33.5 million, $29.0 million, and $28.9 million in 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively, and are included in selling, general, and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of income.
Under the Company's franchise agreements, both the Company and the franchisees must contribute a minimum percentage of revenues to two marketing and national media advertising funds (the Marketing Funds). These Marketing Funds are used to develop and distribute Red Robin® branded marketing materials, for media purchases and for administrative costs. The Company's portion of costs incurred by the Marketing Funds is recorded as selling, general and administrative expenses in the Company's consolidated statements of income. Restricted cash includes amounts contributed to the Marketing Funds held for future use.
Rent—The Company's leases generally contain escalating rent payments over the lease term as well as optional renewal periods. The Company accounts for its leases by recognizing rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term, which includes reasonably assured renewal periods. The lease term begins when the Company has the right to control the use of the property, which is typically before rent payments are due under the lease agreement. The difference between the rent expense and rent paid is recorded as deferred rent in the consolidated balance sheet. Rent expense for the period prior to the restaurant opening is expensed in pre-opening costs. Tenant incentives used to fund leasehold improvements are recorded in deferred rent and amortized as reductions of lease rent expense ratably over the lease term.
Additionally, certain of the Company's operating lease agreements contain clauses that provide for additional contingent rent based on a percentage of sales greater than certain specified target amounts. The Company recognizes contingent rent expense prior to the achievement of the specified target that triggers contingent rent, provided the achievement of that target is considered probable. Refer to Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies.
Self-Insurance Programs—The Company utilizes a self-insurance plan for health, general liability, and workers' compensation coverage. Predetermined loss limits have been arranged with insurance companies to limit the Company's per occurrence cash outlay. Accrued liabilities and accrued payroll and payroll-related liabilities include the estimated cost to settle reported claims and incurred but unreported claims.
Pre-opening Costs—Pre-opening costs are expensed as incurred. Pre-opening costs include rental expenses through the date of opening for each restaurant, travel expenses, wages and benefits for the training and opening teams, and food, beverage and other restaurant opening costs incurred prior to a restaurant opening for business.
Income Taxes—Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for the estimated effects of all taxable temporary differences, and deferred tax assets are recognized for the estimated effects of all deductible temporary differences and net operating losses, if any, and tax credit carryforwards. Measurement of the Company's current and deferred tax liabilities and assets is based on provisions of enacted tax laws.
Earnings Per Share—Basic earnings per share amounts are calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share amounts are calculated based upon the weighted average number of common and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the year. Potentially dilutive shares are excluded from the computation in periods in which they have an anti-dilutive effect. Diluted earnings per share reflect the potential dilution that could occur if holders of options exercised their holdings into common stock. During 2012, 2011, and 2010, a total of 305,000, 226,000, and 511,000 weighted average stock options outstanding were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share because to do so would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented. The Company uses the treasury stock method to calculate the impact of outstanding stock options.
The computations for basic and diluted earnings per share are as follows (in thousands, except per share data):
Comprehensive Income—Comprehensive income consists of the net income and other gains and losses affecting stockholders' equity that, under U.S. GAAP, are excluded from net income. Other comprehensive income as presented in the consolidated statements of stockholders' equity for 2012 consisted of the unrealized gain, net of tax, on the Company's current cash flow hedge which will expire in June 2015. Other comprehensive loss as presented in the consolidated statements of stockholders' equity for 2011 consisted of the unrealized loss, net of tax, on the Company's current cash flow hedge. Other comprehensive income for 2010 consisted of the unrealized gain, net of tax, on the Company's former cash flow hedge that expired March 2011. See Note 8, Derivative and Other Comprehensive Income.
Stock-Based Compensation—The Company maintains several equity incentive plans under which it may grant stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, stock variable compensation or other forms of awards granted or denominated in the Company's common stock or units of the Company's common stock, as well as cash variable compensation awards to employees, non-employees, directors and consultants. In 2010, the Company granted performance-based restricted stock units ("PSUs") to executives and other key employees. These PSUs are subject to company performance metrics based on Total Shareholder Return and measure the overall stock price performance of the Company to the stock price performance of a selected industry peer group, thus resulting in a market condition. The Company also maintains an employee stock purchase plan. See Note 15, Stock Incentive Plans, for additional details.